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鍐呭鎻愮ず锛 DR BRUCE FOGLEDogsE YE WITNESS COMPANIONS 鈥淲HEN WE ARE WITH OUR DOGSTHERE IS NO LONELINESS OFSPIRIT. WE ARE C ONNEC TED. 鈥 Baffin Island Inuit saying Discover more atwww. dk. comLONDON, NEW YORK,MUNICH, MELBOURNE, DELHIProject Art EditorProject EditorEditorial AssistantManaging EditorManaging Art EditorPublisherArt DirectorDTP DesignerProduction ControllerMaxine LeaRob HoustonMiezan van ZylLiz WheelerPhilip OrmerodJonathan MetcalfBryn WallsJohn GoldsmidLinda DareSenior EditorDesignersEditor...

鏂囨。鏍煎紡锛歅DF| 娴忚娆℃暟锛8| 涓婁紶鏃ユ湡锛2012-12-20 15:30:36| 鏂囨。鏄熺骇锛
DR BRUCE FOGLEDogsE YE WITNESS COMPANIONS “WHEN WE ARE WITH OUR DOGSTHERE IS NO LONELINESS OFSPIRIT. WE ARE C ONNEC TED. ” Baffin Island Inuit saying Discover more atwww. dk. comLONDON, NEW YORK,MUNICH, MELBOURNE, DELHIProject Art EditorProject EditorEditorial AssistantManaging EditorManaging Art EditorPublisherArt DirectorDTP DesignerProduction ControllerMaxine LeaRob HoustonMiezan van ZylLiz WheelerPhilip OrmerodJonathan MetcalfBryn WallsJohn GoldsmidLinda DareSenior EditorDesignersEditorial AssistantCreative DirectorEditorial DirectorAaron BrownDawn Terrey, Laura Watson,Sharon Cluett, Sharon RuddJennifer CloseAmanda Lunn Damien MooreIntroduction 10STORY OF THE DOGTHE DOG’S ORIGINS 14Meet the ancestors 16Taming the wolf 18Conquering the world 20The geneticrelationship 22The wolf within 24Street dogs 26THE DOMESTICATED DOG 28Dog design 30The senses 34Instinctive behaviour 36The first dog jobs 38Changing roles 42Dogs in moderncultures 46First published in 2006 byDorling Kindersley Limited80 Strand, London WC2R 0RLPenguin GroupProduced for Dorling Kindersley by2 4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3 1 Copyright © 2006 Dorling Kindersley LimitedText copyright © 2006 All rights reserved, no part of this publication may bereproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmittedin any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without theprior written permission of the copyright owner.A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British LibraryISBN 1405312645ISBN 9781405312646 Colour reproduction by Colourscan, SingaporePrinted and bound in China by Leo Paper Products Ltd顎顎顎 BREED DIVERSITYIntroducing dog breeds 52SMALL DOGS 54MEDIUM-SIZED DOGS 102LARGE DOGS 156EXTRA-LARGE DOGS 240KEEPING A DOGCARING FOR A DOG 268The value of livingwith dogs 270Finding a dog 272Choosing a dog 274Feeding a dog 278Your dog’s diet 282Basic dog accessories 284Additional dog equipment 286Preparing thehousehold 288Health and safety 290Grooming and bathing 292Routine body checks 294Preventative medicine 296Allergies 298The elderly dog 300Assessing injuries 304Emergency treatment 306Wounds and bleeding 308TRAINING A DOG 310Think dog thoughts 312The importance of play 314Housetraining 316Basic obedience 318“Stay” 320Walking the dog 322Destructive behaviour 324Over-excitement 326Aggression 328Advanced training 330Glossary 332Usef ul contacts 335Index 336Acknowledgments 343CONTENTS I N T R O D U C T I O N10FOR MILLENNIA, DOGS HAVE BEEN OUR MOSTTRUSTED ANIMAL COMPANIONS. THEY MAY COMEIN AN ASTONISHINGLY DIVERSE RANGE OF SIZESAND LOOKS, BUT THEY ARE ALL ALIKE IN THEIRSINGULAR SUCCESS AT READING OUR INTENTIONS.THIS UNIQUE ASSET EXPLAINS THE SUCCESS OFOUR RELATIONSHIP WITH DOGS.ANCIENT ORIGINSTraditionally, it is said thatour relationship with dogsbegan around 15,000years ago when, with thedevelopment of agriculture,our ancestors became moresedentary. Anthropologicalevidence of the wolfevolving into the dog – a reduction in the size ofthe brain, teeth set moreclosely together – datesfrom that era. But recentgenetic evidence puts thedate much earlier (seepp.22–23). Although thedate is uncertain, genetictests confirm that the dogevolved from Asian wolves.A line of wolves that feltat ease in close proximityto humans survived andmultiplied. This adaptationproved to be immenselysuccessful for both parties,and eventually some oftheir descendants, living in human settlements, nolonger mated at will: theirmatings were controlledby people. For the first time,dogs were selectively bredto perpetuate attributes oftheir parents that peoplefound advantageous.BREEDS AND THEIR USESThe original values of dogs remaincardinal virtues today. Because they are as gregariously sociable as we are,and because, when raised from birth in a human environment they consider their human family to be their own, from the first, dogs have co-ordinatedtheir activities with ours. They naturallyprotected the territory they lived in by barking warnings of approachingstrangers, and defended the settlementwhen necessary. They accompaniedhuman “pack” members on the huntand, with their superior speed and scent-trailing ability, and their unique facilityfor knowing what we want them to doby reading our hand signals and evenour eye line, they actively contributedto successful hunting. No lessimportant was the dog’s socialposition within the humanfamily. Young pups wereCare for your dogGrooming a dog isgood for the dog’sskin, hair, andcirculation, but italso satisfies ourinherent, lifelongneed to nurture.Dogs as petsIn North America, Europe, Japan,Australia, and New Zealand, there areover 100 million canine companions –a dog in one out of three households. 11I N T R O D U C T I O NWorking dogsAssisting on the hunt has long beena vital dog job, and many of today’sbreeds come from hunting dogs.This Schillerstövare is rare in stillbeing able to fulfil his hunting role.Breed diversitySelective breedingenhances ordiminishes traits thatexist within the dog’sgenetic potential.Body shape and coattexture vary, but alldogs share a similarpalette of potentialcoat colours fromwhite throughbrown to black.characteristics grew, and by 5,000 years ago all the shapes and sizes oftoday’s dogs – dwarfs, bantams, giants,and brachycephalics (flat-faced dogs) –existed. It is only in the last 200 years,however, that selective breeding for size,shape, and skill has grown into a trueindustry, with kennel club standardswritten for hundreds of different breeds.CARING FOR A DOGPeople who choose thoughtfully the typeof dog best suited to the way they live, andthen invest a little time sensibly trainingtheir new companion, are rewarded withall the values that come from sharing yourhome with a dog – comfort, honesty,constancy, entertainment, friendship,and unfeigned affection. Unfortunately,there’s a flip-side. An unwise choice,random training, and haphazard carelead to anxiety, distress, and finallyfailure. The following pages describehow easy it is to build a successful,mutually gratifying relationshipwith a canine companion.playthings, a source of entertainment for the family. Pups and small dogs were bed- warmers on cold nights. Dogs were also a reliable source ofnourishment when preferred forms of food were not available. Selectivebreeding to enhance certain STORY OF THE DOG THE DOG’S ORIGINSThe species we call the dog is, both by intent and by accident, ourinvention. It is also one of the most prolific land-based predators ever to have existed, vastly surpassing in numbers the wolf from which itdescends. The dog is a success story in so many ways because of itsability to fit effortlessly into an ever-evolving human environment.The hunt is onThis paintingshows whathunting houndslooked like in16th-century France – remarkablysimilar to today’sGreyhound.Dogs through the agesA close-up of the Bayeux Tapestry,chronicling the Norman conquest ofEngland by William the Conqueror in1066. Full of animal imagery, thetapestry depicts 35 hunting dogs.The trusty huskyOne of the most ancient of dog breeds, the agile, athletic, andtireless Siberian Husky hashistorically been used as a draught animal by the ArcticChukchi tribes.Whatever role we ask of them however,dogs unfailingly lavish upon us a qualityfew other animals can: companionship.If numbers of pet dogs throughout the world – estimated to be around 140million in Europe and North Americaalone – are an indication, whatever theorigins of the curious partnership betweenman and canine that evolved all thosemillennia ago, the dog’s position atthe centre of our lives is assured.DOGS – THEN AND NOWThe dog’s ancestor, the Asian Wolf, choseto live in proximity to humans. Proximitydeveloped into an intimate association –an association that began almost 15,000years ago, according to archaeologicalrecords. In fact, when people first set foot in North America, they arrived withtheir dogs. Today, new genetic evidencesuggests that their migration occurred20,000 years ago, so our relationshipwith dogs is even older than we thought.While a number of breeds, such as the Siberian Husky, Chow Chow, SharPei, Japanese Akita, Shiba Inu, and the Pekingese, are truly ancient breeds,genetically close to their Asian Wolforigins, the great majority of the world’s400-plus breeds of dogs have been“created” by us within the last 200 to 300 years. Through selectivebreeding, we have optimized boththe dog’s size and appearance, as well as its ability to hunt, herd, guard, and defend us. A black Canadian WolfThe variation in coat colours we seein dogs is nothing new genetically:dog’s wolf relatives are also diverse.Grey Wolf with cubWolves retain a lifelong exuberance– a continuing enjoyment in playing,particularly with younger wolves.16T H E D O G ’ S O R I G I N SMeet the ancestorsThe statement “Your dog is a wolf in disguise” has been repeated so often that it’s often taken for immutable fact. Lurking under yourpet’s fine coat, so it is said, is a primitive wolf, waiting to escape andrevert to nature. The truth, however, is not quite that straightforward.WHICH WOLF ANCESTOR?When we think of wolves we usuallypicture the majestic North AmericanTimber Wolf or the more independentEuropean Grey Wolf, the “baddie”in Little Red Riding Hood.It’s easy to forget that theseare but two of the manyraces of wolf that once existedor still exist today. Is the dog aTimber Wolf or a Grey Wolf indisguise? The question isn’t simplyrhetorical because, while these arethe subspecies of wolf we aremost familiar with, each has itsown unique set of behaviourpatterns. The Timber Wolf is a true pack hunter, coordinatinghunting and sleeping activitywith other members, while theEuropean Wolf is much moreself-reliant, hunting on its own or only with its immediate family.OUT OF ASIAIn fact, the modern dog shares little of its ancestry with North American or European wolves. Recent evidenceindicates that the dog evolved in eastAsia. Throughout all of Asia, andextending as far west as the Arabianpeninsula, there existed and still existraces of relatively small, sociable, andKing of the caninesWolves are the most successful members of the Canidaefamily, which is named after its members’ large, grippingcanine teeth. Until recently, the European Grey Wolf (above)– an especially large and powerful predator – was believedto have been the direct ancestor of all dog breeds. 17adaptable wolves. In both appearanceand behaviour, Asian wolves differconsiderably from their larger Europeanand North American relatives. The largewolves specialize in capturing and killingbig game; their shorter-coated Asianrelatives evolved as efficient scavengersand survive by preying on smalleranimals and living off carrion. However,although there are obvious physicalLEPTOCYONEvolution of the wolf Wolves are members of the Canidae family, which also includes jackals,foxes, and African Wild Dogs. The canids’ immediate ancestor, Leptocyon,lived seven million years ago. All domestic dog breeds are believed tobe descendants of an Asian wolf, such as the Arab Wolf shown below. JACKALSPERSECUTED TO EXTINCTIONDuring the 19th and 20th centuries, hunters decimated wolf populations. Only 100 years ago there were over two million wolves in North America alone. Today, only one per cent survive. We have been ruinously successful at killing off isolated races and in the last century alone at least seven races of wolf became extinct. One of these, the Japanese Wolf, was the world’s smallest wolf. Standing only 39cm (14in) high at the shoulders and less than 84cm (2ft 9in) long, it became extinct in 1905. WOLVESFOXESAFRICAN WILD DOGSHowling wolvesAll wolves are sociable. Theycommunicate with other membersof their family by using scent or,like these Timber Wolves, by voice.JAPANESEWOLFsimilarities between Asian wolves andmodern Asian pariah dogs, the exactorigins of the dog remain controversial.While today’s Asian wolves may be thedirect ancestors of the dog, it’s equallypossible that an extinct type of wolfprovided the founder stock. T H E D O G ’ S O R I G I N S18Pet dogs are “domesticated” wolves in the sense that they are wolvesthat successfully acclimatized to living under our terms and ourmanagement. But what is it exactly about wolves that made them sowilling to do so? And why do we find their behaviour so appealing?Taming the wolfA NEW ECOLOGICAL NICHEThe story of the domestication of thewolf differs from that of most otherdomesticated animals because we didn’tactually tame it – the wolf chose to live inclose proximity to us. It chose to becometame. Wolves found the area aroundhuman campsites – effectively a newecological niche – to be a fruitful habitat.They scavenged from human waste, fedoff rodents attracted by human food,and were safe from other large predatorsthat had already been cleared from theregion by humans. No doubt youngwolves were captured bylocals: wolf pups were as appealing to humansthen as they are now.Some were raised to adolescence, then eaten. Others,probably the mostsociable, survivedinto adulthoodPrimitive partnershipThis prehistoric cave painting from Ennedi Plateau in Chadreveals dogs’ early role in the human community, probablyassisting in the hunt for large animals. Wolfdogs thathelped and protected the tribe survived and bred,establishing themselves as the first pet dogs. 19T A M I N G T H E W O L Fand were able to breed. It was a case of “the survival of the friendliest”, thosewith the most playful and most juvenilecharacters survived. The wolfdog’s packinstinct allowed it to fit in with thehuman family group, with its familiarhierarchy of dominant and submissivemembers. Its superior hearing and keensense of smell made it a useful sentinel,alerting its human pack to outside dangers.FIGHT, FLIGHT, OR FRIENDSHIPIn terms of adapting to human life, amodern-day equivalent of the wolf is thefox. During the last 20 years this rural,secretive, nocturnal animal has changedits habits dramatically, integrating itselfinto bustling urban environments andemerging as a confident daytime hunterand scavenger. And like its wolf ancestorthousands of years earlier, the fox’s“flight distance” – the distance withinwhich it will allow an “enemy” toapproach before fleeing – hasdiminished considerably.A working relationshipHumans soon discovered that, just as dogs protect thehuman family from danger, they would do the same withlivestock if they were raised from puppyhood with theanimals. In Namibia today, Anatolian Shepherd Dogs stillprotect goats from cheetahs, continuing an ancient role.THE TAMING OF THE FOX Fascinating work by a Russian geneticist, DmitryBelyaev, that started in the 1950s showed just howeasily and quickly behaviours in animals can bechanged. From new litters of fox cubs on Russianfur farms, Belyaev selected individuals that showed the least fear when handled and were most likely to lick him or approach him voluntarily. In other words, he selected from foxes that retained juvenile behaviourcharacteristics. Within fewer than ten generations,many of the descendants behaved as “domesticated”individuals, eager to meet strangers, lick their keepers,and whimper when left on their own. Selectivelychosen for docility, Belyaev’s foxes also developed othercharacteristics, including blue eyes and piebald (blackand white) coats. The full-body wag of puppyhood andthe submissive raising of their paws to strangers wereretained. Belyaev had produced what were, in effect,lifelong juveniles. And that’s exactly what dogs are.Part of the familyKeeping a pet dog isn’t just the preserve of Western cultures. Here, a YanomamiIndian family living in the Amazon rainforest of South America is pictured with a domesticated canine companion. T H E D O G ’ S O R I G I N S20Dogs emerged out of Asia, accompanying humans on trade, conquest,and migration routes. They moved north to Arctic lands, south to SE Asia, Papua New Guinea, and Australia, west via India to Africaand Europe, and east to the Pacific Islands and the Americas.Conquering the worldARCHAEOLOGICAL CLUESThe first dogs, which were physically identicalto wolves, formed a loose,scavenging associationwith ancient humans. We can only assume thisbecause their fossils can’tbe differentiated from wolffossils. There are certainlywolf bones, found withhuman fossils, dating backsome tens of thousands ofyears, but it can only be guessed whetherthese wolves were prey or primitivecompanions. In parts of Asia and evenin Europe, however, archaeologicalevidence exists that suggests humans and wolfdogs may have formed a bondingrelationship long beforeour ancestors settled intopermanent agriculturalsites. Researchers at theBritish Museum confirmedthat a jawbone, found in a cave in Iraq occupied bypeople 14,000 years ago,was that of an equallyancient domesticated dog. Israeli archaeologistsdiscovered a 12,500-year-old humangrave in which a dog pup was held in a seemingly warm embrace by its femaleowner. In Spain, an even older burial sitewas excavated, revealing theCAROLINA DOGXOLOITZCUINTLI SE UNITEDSTATESMEXICODILUTING PRIMITIVE DOGSAs Europeans settled in the Americas, Africa, andAustralia, their accompanying European breeds bredwith indigenous primitive breeds. For example, inAfrica, European settlers crossed the Basutos’s Shenzidogs with their own European dogs, producing theRhodesian Ridgeback. And putting paid to the“genetically pure” tag of Australia’s Dingo, DNAresults reveal that over three-quarters of the breed are descendants of hybridization with European dogs.The distribution of the dogGenetic evidence confirms that the firstwolfdogs emerged in Asia between40,000 and 100,000 years ago beforerapidly spreading throughout theworld. A land bridge in the ancientregion of “Beringia” allowed landmigration of people and dogs fromAsia to North America around 20,000years ago. The descendants of the firstAsian wolfdogs still exist today on allcontinents except Antarctica.TRADE, CONQUEST, ANDMIGRATION ROUTESLAND BRIDGEPERO SINPELO PERUAn early partnershipThis woman and her dog were buriedtogether around 12,500 years ago inEin Mallaha, northern Israel. 21C O N QU E R I N G T H E W O R L DDogs as huntersThe design of this Greek pottery jugfrom around 550 BC provides anearly illustration of how dogs wereused to help man hunt. The obedientdog remains close to its master’s side.6,000–7,000 years ago. Over 5,000 years ago, guardingdogs, ancestors of Rottweilers andBulldogs, existed inTibet. More recently,scent hounds, ancestorsof the modern BassetHound and dachshunds,were evident in Italy 1,700years ago. Water spaniels and retrieversmade their appearance in Europe 1,300years ago, and terriers only 100 years later.Now, as then, the evolution of the dogthroughout the world continues unabated.skeleton of a young girl. Lyingaround the girl, and facing infour directions, were theremains of four dogs.THE DOG DEVELOPS …At least 12,000 years ago, when our distant ancestors had settled into permanent habitation, theprimitive dog came under naturalenvironmental pressures. As aresult, its shape began to change.Its smaller body and brain cavity,and more-compacted teeth, forexample, provide us with the firstextensive fossil evidence of themodern dog. After many generations of selective breeding, a diversity of dogbreeds began to evolve. Archaeologicalevidence tells us that sight hounds,ancestors of the modern Afghan, Saluki,and Greyhound, existed in MesopotamiaFINNISHSPITZINDIAN PARIAHDOGFINLANDPAPUA NEWGUINEATHAILANDINDIAASIAEAST SIBERIANLAIKASIBERIAKOREAJINDO GAENEW GUINEASINGING DOGTHAIPARIAH DOGCANAANISRAELAFRICABASENJIAUSTRALIADINGO T H E D O G ’ S O R I G I N S22During the late 1990s, scientists learned that all dogs share their DNA with wolves. Only a few years later, they discovered ways to analyse genetic data to reveal the antiquity of modern breeds and found that many of them are not quite what they seem.The genetic relationshipWOLFREPRODUCTION WOLVESGenetic evidence has shown that several dog breedscommonly believed to be of ancient origin, such as thePharaoh Hound and the Ibizan Hound, have actually beenrecreated in modern times from combinations of otherbreeds. Scientists had previously considered that these“ancient” breeds were descended directly from Egyptiandogs drawn on tomb walls 5,000 years ago. The GermanShepherd, too, although wolf-like in looks, is a fully moderndog sharing its geneticheritage with breeds such asthe Rottweiler and the Boxer.PHARAOH HOUNDAKITA (JAPAN)CHOW CHOW (CHINA)SHAR PEI (CHINA)SHIBA INU (JAPAN)BASENJI (AFRICA)ALASKAN MALAMUTESIBERIAN HUSKYAFGHAN HOUND (AFGHANISTAN)SALUKI (MIDDLE EAST)MOST OTHER BREEDSAncient breedsRecent studies show that a single genetic event took place in Asia leading to the evolution of the dog from its wolf ancestor. On threesubsequent occasions, further wolf genes were added,resulting in three more distinct branches of geneticallyancient breeds in Africa, the Arctic, and the Middle East.The majority of modern breeds are the result of only thelast 300 years of selective breeding.GERMANSHEPHERDCLUES IN THE GENESMitochondria are curious structureswithin cells, and what biologists love aboutthem is that they contain their own DNAand provide a unique signature to a lineof descent. By studying mitochondrialDNA, scientists established that the dogdiverged from the wolf between 40,000and 100,000 years ago. Further evidence,published in 2004, showed that three out of four modern dogs share theirmitochondrial DNA with a single femalewolf ancestor. In other words, three-quarters of all dogs today descend fromone family of wolves. The remaining one out of four modern dogs shares itsmitochondrial DNA with three otherwolf ancestors.SCIENTIFIC BREED GROUPINGSJust as the greatest diversity in humangenes exists in Africa, where ourancestors evolved, the greatest diversityin canine genes exists in Asia. In recentgenetic research, 85 dog breeds werestudied and geneticists observed that all breeds fit into one of four differentclusters of related breeds. The mostancient of these, closest to the wolf,include the Chow Chow and Shar Peifrom China, and the Japanese Akita andShiba Inu. More surprisingly, it was foundthat four Asian companion breeds – theTibetan Terrier, Lhasa Apso, and ShihTzu, all from Tibet, and the Pekingesefrom China – trace their origins to 23Border CollieCollies, and a fewother herding dogssuch as the BelgianShepherd, trace theirorigins to the MiddleAges, as do manymastiff-type breeds,such as the PyreneanMastiff and themajestic BerneseMountain Dog.HuskyHuskies (below) and other Nordicbreeds, such as the AlaskanMalamute, are truly ancient and are among the wolf’sclosest relatives.PekingeseIt is hard to believe, but the small, flat-facedPekingese is one of a small group of breedsmost closely related to the wolf.antiquity. This makes them more closelyrelated to the wolf than the “wolf-like”German Shepherd and the vast majorityof existing dog breeds which, geneticallyspeaking, have relatively recent origins –each emerging within the last 300 years.Within the modern breeds, genetic studieshave revealed three distinct subgroups:mastiff-like breeds; herding breeds; andhunting breeds, reflecting the traditionalbreed groupings based on human activity. Significant behavioural differences exist between dog breeds, and somebreeds are noticeably more wolflike than others. Through centuries of selective breeding we have enhanced a variety of un-wolflike traitsin our canine companions, and the changes are still going on.The wolf withinA TRUE WOLF IN DISGUISEAll dogs communicate with each otherand with us in a variety of defined ways.They use posture, body language,voice, even odour.These combinedcommunication skillshave been studiedextensively in wolves and indogs and have been classifiedas “wolfish” and “doggish”. Thecommunication skills of the younghave also been studied, and thesebehaviours have been classified as “puppyish”. Using the range of communication skills of the adult wolf as their baseline, a team of biologists observed 10different breeds of adult dogs. Their results showed that while allthe breeds of dog were capable of allaspects of “puppyish” communication,in some breeds communication stalledat that level while in others it developedinto full “wolfish” communication.Only one of these 10 breeds isgenetically ancient and that breed, the Siberian Husky, is the only one that has retained its ability to communicate in all 15 differentaspects of “wolfish” behaviour. At the other end of the spectrum, theCavalier King Charles Spaniel retains an ability in only two of the 15 differentways that adult wolves communicate.CAN YOU TRUST YOUR DOG’S SIGNALS?In a subtle experiment carried out in 2004, skilled dog trainersshowed that it is possible to train dogs to detect the presenceof bladder cancer simply by scenting affected urine samples.However, they observed that some dogs – always the goofyretrievers – were prone to detect “false positives”, a positiveresult from a negative sample. There are some breeds that arejust so puppyish, so desperate to please us, that they will guessat an answer to avoid disappointing their owners.“TANGLE”, THE CANCER-DETECTOR DOGT H E D O G ’ S O R I G I N S24Dog or wolf?Strikingly different inappearance to its wolfancestor, studies revealthat the Golden Retrieverin fact shares 80 per cent of the wolf’scommunication skills. 25TOP 10 – FROM “WOLFISH” TO “PUPPYISH”Researchers graded 10 dog breeds on a scale of 0–15to identify the presence of 15 signals that wolves useto convey threat or submission. Nine of them werethreat signals and included growling, standing erect,standing over an opponent, and baring teeth. Sixsubmissive signals included muzzle licking, lookingaway, crouching, passive submission, and a submissivegrin. A grade of 15/15 was awarded to the SiberianHusky, the breed sharing the most “wolfish” qualities.The King Charles Spaniel’s ability tocommunicate is arrested in puppyhood.In that sense, it is a perpetual puppywith a limited adult social vocabulary.A MEMBER OF THE HUMAN FAMILYDuring the time I have practisedveterinary medicine, the role of thedog has changed faster than perhapsever before. Some dogs exist forpractical reasons, but the majority ofthose dogs we share our homes withare thought of as hairy but honorarymembers of the human family. We get profound emotional rewards fromliving with them and, in many ways,these are similar to the rewards we getfrom caring for our own young. Thedifference here is that our own kidsgrow up and leave home. Not so ourdogs. Look at what we want from them– perpetual puppyhood. Today, webreed dogs selectively for their puppy-like behaviour rather than their wolf-like aptitudes. We want full-body wags,a rocking-horse greeting when we meet,kisses, rolling over to be tickled,obedience, no aggression. In just a matterof decades the behaviour of wholebreeds – the Bernese Mountain Dogand the Pyrenean Mountain Dog, forexample – has changed from “wolfish”to “puppyish” simply through selectivebreeding for these characteristics. Thisappears to be the future for virtually allbreeds of dog as they continue to movefrom the workplace to the fireside.Changing times, changing rolesToday, we demand qualities from our pets that they weren’toriginally bred for. The Bernese Mountain Dog, for example,is now more likely to be a companion dog than a herder.1. SIBERIAN HUSKY15/152. GOLDEN RETRIEVER12/153. GERMAN SHEPHERD11/154. LABRADORRETRIEVER 8/155. MUNSTERLANDER 7/156. COCKER SPANIEL 6/157. SHETLAND SHEEPDOG4/158. FRENCH BULLDOG4/159. NORFOLK TERRIER3/1510. CAVALIER KINGCHARLES SPANIEL 2/15T H E W O L F W I T H I N T H E D O G ’ S O R I G I N S26Street dogsThousands of years of domestication have effectively created a surplusof dogs. The net result is that for every pet dog in the world there is astreet dog. Accounting for half of the canine population, street dogs –also called pariah dogs – survive by scavenging and begging from us.Street dogs in MexicoMexico has a serious poverty problem, with more thanhalf of the population officially living on or close to thebreadline. For the country’s street dogs, the knock-oneffect of this deprivation is a desperately bleak existence.RABIES AND STREET DOGSThere are 100 annual human rabies fatalities in Sri Lankaand most are caused by dog bites. The problem is evengreater in Mexico. In Mexico City alone, 70 people dieeach year from rabies and over 100,000 are treated fordog bites. Still more die from rabies in Brazil, where theworld’s highest number of cases are reported each year.Although 42 million dogs are vaccinated against rabiesannually in Latin America, bites from rabid dogs causecountless deaths. Street dogs may seem docile andsubmissive, but they are potentially lethal.Asian street dogs probably descend fromthe first domesticated dogs that came toIndia with the Aryan’s invasion of thesubcontinent. Generally speaking, theyare moderate in size, weighing around 16kg (35lb), and brown or brown-white in colour, although other colours exist.Because pet dogs have always beenallowed to stray, many if not most Asianstreet dogs have been influenced by cross-breeding with modern domestic dogs. THE NUMBERS GAMEIn Latin America there are nearly 70million stray dogs, almost as many asthere are pet dogs in the neighbouringUnited States. In Mexico City alone thereare one million stray dogs. That’s moreWHAT IS A PARIAH DOG?A pariah is an outcast, and throughoutthe world pariah dogs behave as fullywild animals, living on the fringe ofhuman society. There are millions of pariah dogs roaming free in India,Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, andelsewhere, some treated with kindness,most simply disregarded, and some killed with malicious barbarity. 27S T R E E T D O G Sstrays in one city than the entire caninepopulation of Sweden. Although almost250,000 dogs are destroyed in MexicoCity’s municipal pounds each year, thisregrettable need to cull doesn’t evenbegin to dent the population.Street dogs are tremendously resilientcreatures. On the resort island of Phuketin Thailand, most street dogs disappearedafter the December 2004 tsunami, but inless than a year their numbers returnedto pre-tsunami proportions. FROM PARIAH TO PUREBREDSome of the “breeds” described in theBreed Diversity section (see pp.50–51) are breeds only because peopleintervened in their natural selection,created breed standards, and gaveindigenous street dogs an approvedname. These pariahs turned purebredsinclude the Basenji from Africa,Xoloitzcuintli from Mexico, and theCanaan Dog from Israel. Potentialpariahs turned purebreds include the Aso (Philippines), Bali Dog(Bali/Polynesia), Sica (Natal, SouthAfrica), and Telomian (Malaysia).FROM PUREBRED TO PARIAHIn Eastern Europe, the consequences of political change in the 1990s created a boom in street dog numbers, but theseanimals look quite different from typicalDIFFERENT COUNTRIES, DIFFERENT DOGSStreet dogs reflect both the geneticdiversity of a region’s dog populationand the changing value of dogs to thatregion’s human population. Around theIndian Pariah DogThese usually tan or tan-and-whitedogs evolved over millennia to copewith the hot environment they live in.Their light, fine coats reflect heat.Italian street dog with catShort-legged dogs with moderatecoats are legion in Italy. It would onlytake a written standard to make thistype of dog a new “breed”.Bucharest street dogThe toll of human conflict and massivepolitical upheaval on the street dogsof some of eastern Europe’s emergingnations is evident in their appearance.pariah-type dogs. The shaggy-haired,mournful-eyed, limping street dogs ofRomania are the descendants of pets –often pure-bred creatures – abandonedfor political or financial reasons. So tooare the street dogs of the Balkan states,descendants of pure-bred dogs abandonedduring the conflicts of the 1990s. In bothexamples, pariah dogs often endure pitifullives, and it seems they will remain asocial concern until economic standardsin the countries where they exist allowfor their eventual rehabilitation.world, the look and behaviour of streetdogs is relatively constant. In NorthAmerica and Britain, however, whilestreet dogs once had terrier characteristics,today they display guarding-dog traits. SOS DOGS ORADEA, ROMANIAThe stray dog population of the town of Oradea inRomania is in decline thanks to SOS Dogs Oradea, a project set up in conjunction with UK dog welfarecharity Dogs Trust. A “catch, neuter, a...

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